A. PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
Emphasis on what happened - not who did it.
All roads to the north have been blocked by the police.
The hotel will be redecorated by a famous designer.
B. FRONTING AND INVERSION
We change the word order in a sentence in order to begin with a clause that wouldn't normally come first.
Where the money is coming from, I don't know.
Difficult as it may seem, it is not impossible to achieve.
We invert subject - verb for emphasis
Suddenly down came the rain.
Up into the air went the balloons.
Never have I seen such an amazing sight.
C. IT IS/ WAS + NOUN + THAT + WHO + VERB CLAUSE
This structure helps us to emphasize different parts of the sentence. In speech, intonation and pronunciation also identify the emphasis.
Example: Sue borrowed my bike last night
- It was Sue who borrowed my bike last night.
- It was last night that Sue borrowed my bike.
- It was my bike that Sue borrowed last night.
D. WHAT CLAUSES
WHAT + VERB CLAUSE + IS / WAS + NOUN
- What I hate is rainy weather.
- What you really need is a holiday.
- What Sue borrowed last night was my bike.
E. ADDING WORDS
1. Own - emphasis on possessive adjective
It was my own idea OR It was my very own idea ( for stronger emphasis on the possessive adjective)
2. Very / Indeed
When used emphatically, "very" means exactly / precisely
- At the very same moment, the telephone rang.
- It was very cold, indeed!
3. AT ALL / IN THE LEAST / WHATSOEVER / REALLY
(to emphasize negatives)
- It wasn't cold at all!
- I wasn't in the least interested.
- There was nothing left at all, really.
- There was no ticket left at all, whatsoever.
4. THE - used to emphasize uniqueness and heavily stressed in speech
- Surely, you don't mean the Julia Roberts!
5. Question words ending in -ever. They add an air of disbelief.
- Whatever are you doing?
- Whoever told you that?
- Wherever did you go?
6. DO / DID - emphasize the verb and are stressed in speech
- I do hope you'll come again.
- I did enjoy this film.
7. ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES
- It was absolutely fantastic.
- I actually went inside one of the Pyramids.
- The hotel was extremely expensive.
- What she said was utter nonsense.
- Her performance was sheer magic.
8. Echoing phrases with so
A: This is the book you're looking for.
B: So it is!
A: Here I am! I've finally made it!
B: So you have!
- David keeps reading the same book over and over again.
- I tried and tried but it was no use.
- We walked and walked but we couldn't find our way to the campsite.